Ancient Mesopotamia is included in a part of the world that was called "the fertile crescent". Civilizations arose here because it was easy to grow food here. With the relative ease of food production, people settled down in place, population grew, and towns and cities were built.
The Fertile Crescent includes the modern day countries of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and others.
Ancient Mesopotamia was located in what is now southern Iraq. It was between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates. In fact, the word Mesopotamia is Greek meaning "the land between the rivers".
In Mesopotamia, the land is very fertile. In the Northern part of Mesopotamia, there are rivers and streams that are fed from the mountains. In addition, there is a rainy season that helps water the soil. While the southern region is much hotter and dryer, the two large rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates, allow irrigation. The land between the rivers was filled with wildlife and edible vegetation making it an attractive area for early man to move in to. Once they figured out how to grow crops there, civilization soon followed.